Defensive Driving Skills

Defensive driving tips,
to keep you and your
family safe on the road.

Defensive Driving

Know Your Location
as you Drive

In an emergency while
traveling in your vehicle, know
your location. If you had to
dial 911 for help, you will
be able to give proper

Get in the habit of watching
mile markers, land marks,
road signs, bridge names
river names, and road
names as you drive along.

Knowing your location
could make a significant
response time difference.

Where to Look

Look where you want to go,
not at what you want to
avoid. It has been proven,
you tend to go where you
are looking.

A Quick Judge Of
Distance as you Drive

Are you following too close
behind the vehicle in front
of you?

If they stopped suddenly,
could you stop in time to avoid
hitting them?

A quick effective method
to gauge the right speed is
the one thousand-one,
one thousand-two counting

When the car in front of you
passes a road sign, or marker,
start counting, it should take
the two second count for
you to pass the same sign,
or mark beside the road.

No matter what speed you
are traveling, this counting
method will give you the
correct distance to keep
safely behind the vehicle
ahead of you.

If conditions are very wet,
foggy, snowy, or icy increase
the counting to 1003 or 1004.

This distance allows you the
necessary reaction time to
stop, if the car in front of
you suddenly has to stop.

By A Sixteen

Large commercial vehicles
tend to be in a hurry and
usually travel 5 to 10 km an
hour over the speed limit.

If you find you are tailgated,
pull over and let them

If you need to stop suddenly,
the large truck behind you,
will run right over you.
Because of the extra
weight, the large truck
cannot come to a stop in
the same distance that
you can.

Survival Knife

Keep a small knife under
the seat. Use a folding knife
that is easy to open and has
a place to tie a cord to.

Tie the other end to
something under the seat,
onto some part of the seat

Make sure it is not attached
in a way that will hinder
the seat slide mechanism.

Use a cord long enough to
reach all the seat belts.

If your vehicle is in a roll
over accident and you end
up upside-down, the
pressure on the seat belt
mechanism may make it
impossible to release the
safety belt.

You might have to cut the
seat belt to escape from
the vehicle, simply reach
under the seat and find
the cord that has the
knife attached to the
other end.

The knife can also be used
to defend, if you are
attacked and your life is in

Check the knife periodically
for rust, make sure it stays

Cruise Control and
Wet Roads

Do not use cruise control
on wet rainy or icy roads,
if you spin out, the cruise
control will continue to speed
and make your vehicle spin
out of control.

Snow, ice, slush, and rain
can cause wheel-spin, which
can cause loss of control.

To regain control of your car
it is necessary to reduce
power, but, if cruise control
is engaged, it will continue
to apply power to the wheels,
which will keep them spinning.

You may not be able to
disconnect the cruise
control after you lose control
of your car.

Skid Recovery

To deal with a skid, the most
important thing to remember
is you must remain calm.

Try not to panic your
reaction may cause the
skidding to get worse and
you may not have enough
time to regain control.

Practice skidding in a safe
place, so you will know
what to do and know how
your vehicle reactions
to skids, and stopping.

Regardless of whether you
drive a front-wheel or
rear-wheel drive car,
reducing speed will help
you get control of the

Take your foot off the gas
pedal, avoid panicked,
excessive braking, if you
must brake, only pump
lightly, or feather the brakes.

For rear-drive wheel skids,
gently steer in the direction
of the skid. As the vehicle
regains control, straighten
the front wheels just
before the skid ends.

For front-wheel drive skids,
gently steer in the direction
you wish to travel, while
letting up on the gas pedal
until you regain traction
and solid ground, then
accelerate to the desired

Braking In Extreme

In extreme snow and ice
conditions, control is lost
under full braking conditions.
The vehicle will not go where
you want to go
during a locked wheel skid.

The answer to this problem
is simple, pump the brakes,
because every time you
release the brake, control is
regained momentary.

Brake gently and do small
turns, try to get one side
of the vehicle tires onto
packed snow on the edge
of the road.
Do not panic, stay calm.

Night Driving

When driving in the winter
at night, take a roll of paper
towel and a bottle of Windex
window cleaner with you.
The wet sanded roads toss
up a lot of dirty spray when
vehicles pass you from either

Remember, your headlights
are getting as dirty as your
windshield. You can stop
from time to time and clean
your headlights.

When vehicles are approaching
at night keep your eyes
focused to the right side
of the highway as they pass,
this helps you during the
blinding light of the
approaching vehicles.

Always be ready and aware
of any animal suddenly
crossing the highway.

Glance too the side of the
highway as you drive, for
any animals, their eyes reflect
light, have a plan ready
in your mind, should any
animal jump up from the
ditch onto the road.

Car Ahead Making
a Left Turn

When you approach a car
stopped ahead, at control lights,
where there is no separate
turning lane, waiting to make
a left turn, and you intend to
drive through the intersection,
pull in behind, switch on your
left turn signal, also park
directly behind.

Leave enough room ahead,
so that you can see the rear
tires of the car ahead of
you, this leaves enough
room to maneuver in case
of an emergency.

If you do not switch on your
left signal, an approaching car
may not realize you are
stopped and ram into you.

As the car ahead of you
makes their left turn,
simply clear your signal
light and drive on through
the intersection.

Night Driving and
A String Of Cars

When there is a long line of cars
traveling at night on the
highway, do not lead, but
try for second place.

Use the lights of the car
ahead to assist you visibly
and watch for brake lights
that indicate a problem
ahead, such as deer on
the road.

Winter Tires

Winter tires are a must for
control, and safely driving
in winter conditions.

All-season tires (three season tires)
are designed to work under
a multitude of conditions,
dry roads, wet roads, muddy
roads, and in a wide range
of changing temperatures
and winter conditions.

All-season tires are made of
a hard rubber to provide
long service.

Hard rubber loses it grip on
ice at about -7 degrees Celsius.

When you consider that only
about a palm full of rubber
meets the road on each tire,
this is not a lot of traction area.

A tire designed for winter
conditions is constructed
of a softer rubber that resists
becoming hard under dropping

True winter tires reduce
stopping distance by 20%.

A true snow tire has a snowflake
symbol on the side of the tire.

A con side of a snow tire is
because they are made of
a soft rubber, which wear
quicker than an all-season

Changing the tires in the
fall and spring will give
you the best mileage out of
the tires.

Winter tires mounted on its
own separate rims is
the best way to

All the wheels have to have
winter tires, if you only put
winter tires on the driving
tires, the vehicle will be less
stable in handling.

The vehicle will end up doing
donuts in sudden braking
and direction changes.

Winter Driving Tips

Slow down and modify your
driving to the conditions of
the road. Smooth starting
and stopping is the way to
maintain traction and
control on icy roads.

Apply easy pressure to the
brakes, gas pedal and
steering wheel.

In bad conditions, do one
thing at a time, brake slightly,
steer, brake, steer.

If you do not have ABS
braking system, gently
pump the brakes.

You only have steering
ability when the brakes
are not in use, a locked
tires will skid, with no
turning ability.

Grid Premium
for Basic Vehicle
Insurance Coverage.

Grid applies only to basic
coverage premiums
(third party liability & accident

About 10% of drivers are
rated on Grid

Less experienced drivers are
often capped by Grid

As drivers gain experience
and drive without claims
and convictions, their
premiums decrease.

Inexperienced drivers with
driver training start at 10%
below entry level (Grid step -2)

Each year without an
at-fault claim, further
-5% to maximum 50%
reduction to base or
grid step 0

Each at-fault claim moves
driver 5 steps up the grid
Convictions and accident
frequency develop


Learn the Dutch Reach.
When parking instead of
opening the door with
the hand nearest the door,
use the other hand.

This causes you to look
around into your mirror
and out the back window,
to spot any traffic coming
that may impact an open
door, especially bicycles.

Papa Bear Heater

Papa Bear heater

The above picture is a Papa
Bear Heater which is fashioned
out of a tin coffee container,
used in an emergency to
provide heat in very cold
winter conditions.

To make this heater, obtain
an empty one-pound metal
coffee can with a plastic
lid, a roll of toilet paper,
butane lighter, and two
bottles of 99%pure alcohol.

Roll the toilet paper back
and forth in your hands to
loosen the center core,
so that you can remove
the core.

Compress the toilet paper
and push it into the coffee
can, place the butane
lighter on top of the toilet
paper, place the plastic
lid on the coffee can,
and tape it down.

Tape the two bottles of
alcohol to the side of the
coffee can and store it
in your vehicle for use
in an emergency.

To use this heater remove
the two bottles and lid
from the coffee can. Pour in
one 500mg bottle of
alcohol and let it soak into
the toilet roll, set the can
down on the ground and
light with the lighter.

The alcohol burns
exceptionally clean, only
the alcohol vapors burns,
and is almost invisible,
so be careful, not to burn

This is a very safe heater
if used properly.
When the toilet paper starts
to turn brown, the alcohol is
used up.

Put the flame out with a
cover, or one large breath,
when it cools down, add the
second bottle of alcohol
and re-light.

When used conservatively,
like warming your vehicle
to a point that you can
tolerate, then blow out the
flame, by repeating this
process, it lasts for many
hours producing a lot of heat.

Open the window slightly
on the down wind side of
the vehicle to let in fresh

Do not pour the alcohol
into the tin and store it
in your car trunk before
it is needed, the alcohol
will evaporate, before
you most need it!

I recommend adding a type
written instruction paper
to the stored Papa bear
heater, so that anyone
will understand how to
use this device.

Hunters, sport-fishers and
winter outdoors sports
people will also find this
a very fine companion.

The Papa Bear Heater!

It is all great to read about
tips such as this, but can
you depend on them in an

I decided to test out one of
these devices and pass
on the information to you.

The test was done outside
at a temperature of +3
Fahrenheit. I had placed the
toilet paper roll into the
coffee can and added one
500 ml bottle of 99% pure
alcohol, there was only
enough room to take half
of the full bottle.

By slowly adding more,
it took 3 minutes to absorb
the complete bottle of alcohol.

I lit it up, and noticed the
flame was not transparent,
but a yellow flame with
a tiny bit of smoke, the flame
reached a height of 12 inches
above the can.

The height of the flame was
consistent for the complete test.

At full throttle, considerable
heat is produced, for 45
minutes, then the paper
started to char, the top two
inches of the can became
very hot, but lower down
the can remained only warm
to the touch.

One can hold this devise in
their hands, but caution
must be exercised because of
the tall flame.

If you intend on making one
of these heaters, I recommend
you try it out first, so you
understand the workings and
limitations of it, long before
you ever need to use it.

When you actually need to
use the device, it will be
ready for use.

The paint on the top edge
will be burnt away. Every new
stove or heater produces a
smell the first time it is used,
better to have the burn in
over with before it needs
to be used in small quarters.

When you use the heater,
you will need some sort of
shelter from the wind, as the
flame can be blown out.

I recommend this heater for
non-emergency, outdoor
uses, such as outdoor
cross-country skiing, and

The heater is a simple crude
device, but It works, and
would probably be welcomed
under any winter-time
emergency condition.

It was suggested to me,
a three wick beeswax candle
would be a good alternate
choice, if you are
intimidated by this heater.


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